Aspects of Botrytis-host interactions, pathogenicity factors, the plant's reactions to infection, morphology and cellular organization, signaling, key enzymes, reactive oxygen species and oxidative processes in disease on-set, secondary metabolites as plant defense substances and the role of phytohormones in such reactions are emphasized in the book. Several innovative approaches for disease management of this group of destructive pathogens and methods of detection, epidemiological studies and chemical and biological control are also discussed.
Goodman, Brian Williamson. Phytohormones In Botrytis-Plant Interactions. Detection, Quantification and Immunolocalisation of Botrytis species. Microbial Control of Botrytis spp. Epidemiology of Botrytis cinerea in Orchard and Vine Crops. Philip A. Elmer, Themis J. Botrytis Species on Bulb Crops. James W. Lorbeer, Alison M. Seyb, Marjan de Boer, J. Ernst van den Ende. Observable tensor-to-scalar ratio and secondary gravitational wave background.
Signature inversion of the semi-decoupled band in the odd-odd nucleus Ta. The high-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus Ta have been studied by the Gd 19 F, 4n Ta reaction at the beam energy of 97 MeV. Conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei.
Phenomenological approach is described, using it, energy spectra of odd-odd nucleus collective bands based on conflicting state of unpaired nucleons can be calculated. It is ascertained that in a conflicting bond unpaired nucleon acts as a spectator, i. Odd nitrogen production by meteoroids. The process by which odd nitrogen species atomic nitrogen and nitric oxide are formed during atmospheric entry of meteoroids is analyzed theoretically.
An ablating meteoroid is assumed to be a point source of mass with a continuum regime evolving in its wake. The amounts of odd nitrogen species, produced by high-temperature reactions of air in the continuum wake, are calculated by numerical integration of chemical rate equations.
Flow properties are assumed to be uniform across the wake, and 29 reactions involving five neutral species and five singly ionized species are considered, as well as vibrational and electron temperature nonequilibrium phenomena. The results, when they are summed over the observed mass, velocity, and entry-angle distribution of meteoroids, provide odd -nitrogen-species annual global production rates as functions of altitude.
The peak production of nitric oxide is found to occur at an altitude of about 85 km; atomic nitrogen production peaks at about 95 km. The total annual rate for nitric oxide is 40 million kg; for atomic nitrogen it is million kg. Theory and observation of compressional Alfven eigenmodes in low aspect ratio plasma.
A new theory of radially and poloidally localized Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes CAE in low aspect ratio plasma is reported. The frequency of observed CAEs is correlated with the characteristic Alfven velocity of the plasma. The observed high frequency modes are explained as CAEs driven by energetic beam ions.
CAEs are destabilized by free energy in the energetic ion velocity space gradient via Doppler shifted cyclotron resonance with beam ions. A source representation of microseisms constrained by HV spectral ratio observations. The microseisms are generated by pressure variation on the sea floor caused by incident and reflected ocean waves, and dominant background noises at short periods.
The observations of microseism wave fields in deep sedimentary basins e. A similar correlation has been found in teleseismic arrival times and P-wave amplitude as well as local-earthquake S-wave relative amplification [Dolenc et al.
This observation infers that a study of microseism wave field, combined with other seismic data sets, can probably be used to invert for the velocity structures of the deep basins. To make this inversion possible, it is necessary to understand the excitation and propagation characteristics of microseisms.
The optimal source representation of the microseisms will be the first step to accomplish inversions for 3D seismic velocity structure in sedimentary basins using microseisms. The extreme-mass- ratio inspirals EMRIs of stellar mass compact objects into massive black holes in the centres of galaxies are an important source of low-frequency gravitational waves for space-based detectors.
We develop a fully three-dimensional numerical code describing the diffusion of cosmic rays CRs in the Milky Way. It includes the nuclear spallation chain up to oxygen, and allows the study of various CR properties, such as the CR age, grammage traversed, and the ratio between secondary and primary particles. This code enables us to explore a model in which a large fraction of the CR acceleration takes place in the vicinity of galactic spiral arms that are dynamic.
We show that the effect of having dynamic spiral arms is to limit the age of CRs at low energies. This is because at low energies the time since the last spiral arm passage governs the CR age, and not diffusion. Using the model, the observed spectral dependence of the secondary to primary ratio is recovered without requiring any further assumptions such as a galactic wind, re-acceleration or various assumptions on the diffusivity.
In particular, we obtain a secondary to primary ratio which increases with energy below about 1 GeV. Odd things, in odd places, in odd races Ferndale South African Odd things, in odd places, in odd races. No Abstract. South African Gastroenterology Vol. Quasiparticle features and level statistics of odd-odd nucleus.
The energy levels of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y are calculated by using the axially symmetric rotor plus quasiparticles model. The effect of the recoil term is small while the Coriolis force plays a major role in the spectral structure of 84 Y. Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides. The formulae applied to the eleven 11 cases of ground states show significant improvement over the results obtained using shell model.
Configuration mixing and coriolis coupling is expected to cause further improvement in the results. Although the general expression holds for excited states as well but in lanthanide region, the experimental reports of magnetic dipole moments of excite states band heads of higher rational sequences are not available except in case of five 5 neutron resonance states which cannot be handled on the basis of the present approach with no configuration mixing. Although in the present discussion, the model could not be applied to excited states but the systematics of change in its magnitude with increasing spin at higher rational states is very well understood.
These systematics are to be verified whenever enough data for higher excited states are available. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy. In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions.
We present the results of a new study of Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements. Lifetimes and magnetic moments in odd-odd 70 As.
Both the rapid changes in structure and the shape coexistence appear to reflect the competition between the shell gaps which occur at large oblate and prolate deformations near nucleon numbers 36 and 38 for both protons and neutrons. Because no unique interpretation of the unusual features discovered in these nuclei exists, the systematic experimental study of structure of these nuclei is still an interesting subject.
At energies between and keV a multiplet of negative parity levels has been observed. Additional information is required in order to establish the structure of low and high-spin levels of both parities. From the measured lifetime for the 9. The paper treats a newly developed set of nonlinear observers for advanced spark ignition engine control Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei.
A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd -mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used.
Calculated and experimental level structures for Np, Am, and Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. Collinear wakefield acceleration has been long established as a method capable of generating ultrahigh acceleration gradients. Because of the success on this front, recently, more efforts have shifted towards developing methods to raise the transformer ratio TR.
This figure of merit is defined as the ratio of the peak acceleration field behind the drive bunch to the peak deceleration field inside the drive bunch. TR is always less than 2 for temporally symmetric drive bunch distributions and therefore recent efforts have focused on generating asymmetric distributions to overcome this limitation.
The diagnostic odds ratio : a single indicator of test performance. Diagnostic testing can be used to discriminate subjects with a target disorder from subjects without it. Several indicators of diagnostic performance have been proposed, such as sensitivity and specificity. Using paired indicators can be a disadvantage in comparing the performance of competing.
O' Leary, C. The new level scheme has two separate structures corresponding to spherical and prolate shapes. What makes red quasars red?. Observational evidence for dust extinction from line ratio analysis. Red quasars are very red in the optical through near-infrared NIR wavelengths, which is possibly due to dust extinction in their host galaxies as expected in a scenario in which red quasars are an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies and unobscured type 1 quasars.
In order to investigate why red quasars are red, we studied optical and NIR spectra of 20 red quasars at z 0. Furthermore, the Paschen to Balmer line ratios of red quasars are difficult to explain with plausible physical conditions without adopting the concept of the dust extinction. The CFHD of red quasars are similar to, or marginally higher than, those of unobscured type 1 quasars. The Eddington ratios , computed for 19 out of 20 red quasars, are higher than those of unobscured type 1 quasars by factors of , and hence the moderate viewing angle scenario is disfavored.
Consequently, these results strongly suggest the dust extinction that is connected to an enhanced nuclear activity as the origin of the red color of red quasars, which is consistent with the merger-driven quasar evolution scenario. Full Table A. The purpose of this project was to develop, validate, and share one possible pedagogical technique using playing cards that could be employed to improve undergraduate understanding of….
Lellouch, E. The instrument aperture a rectangular slit. Can the cerebroplacental ratio CPR predict intrapartum fetal compromise? Objective: To investigate the potential clinical use of serial fetal CPR measurements during the last month of pregnancy for the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in unselected low-risk pregnancies. Methods: A multicenter prospective observational cohort study in consecutively recruited low-risk pregnancies.
All eligible pregnancies underwent serial sonographic evaluation of fetal weight and Doppler indices at two week intervals, from 36 weeks gestation until delivery. Data were A systematic study of odd-odd Gallium nuclei. Allegro, P. Stefanescu et al. We have also performed calculations to study 67 Ge, an odd nucleus in the same mass region, in order to verify the behavior of the effective interactions in a nucleus without the proton-neutron interaction.
C 76, Chiara et al. C 85, Sugawara et al. C 81, C 78, R Yoshinaga et al. C 78, C 79, Cheal et al. Caurier and F. Nowacki, Acta Phys. Polonica B 30, Sorlin et al. Observation of anomalous Stokes versus anti-Stokes ratio in MoTe2 atomic layers. We grow hexagonal molybdenum ditelluride MoTe2 , a prototypical transition metal dichalcogenide TMDC semiconductor, with chemical vapor transport methods and investigate its atomic layers with Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering.
We report observation of all six types of zone center optical phonons. Quite remarkably, the anti-Stokes Raman intensity of the low energy layer-breathing mode becomes more intense than the Stokes peak under certain experimental conditions, creating an illusion of 'negative temperature'. This effect is tunable, and can be switched from anti-Stokes enhancement to suppression by varying the excitation wavelength. We interpret this observation to be a result of resonance effects arising from the C excitons in the vicinity of the Brillouin zone center, which are robust even for multiple layers of MoTe2.
The intense anti-Stokes Raman scattering provides a cooling channel for the crystal and opens up opportunities for laser cooling of atomically thin TMDC semiconductor devices. Further observations on sex ratio among infants born to survivors of the atomic bombs, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Data are presented on the sex ratio of 47, children born in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during to The total number of births in these two cities for which information is available is now ,, and of this number in 73, instances one or both parents were exposed to the atomic bombs.
The suggestion of an effect of exposure on sex ratio in the earlier data is not borne out by the present findings. One can argue either that a small early effect has disappeared or that the original observation had no biological significance.
Error calculations and analysis of the gain ratio , calibrated volume linear depolarization ratio and particle linear depolarization ratio are provided as well. In this method, the influences of the gain ratio , the rotation angle of the plane of polarization and the polarizing beam splitter are discussed in depth. Good agreements are found. Then an analysis on the polarizing properties of the aerosol, clouds and cirrus over the Tibetan Plateau is provided.
The particle depolarization ratio of cirrus clouds varies from 0. Cirrus clouds occurred between 5. The cloud thickness ranges from 0. It is found that the particle depolarization ratio of cirrus clouds become larger as the height increases. However, the increase rate of the particle depolarization ratio becomes smaller as.
A measurement of the holographic minimum- observable beam branching ratio in the Fermilab foot bubble chamber. Holography has been used successfully in combination with conventional optics for the first time in a large cryogenic bubble chamber, the Foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab, during a physics run.
The ratio of intensities of the object light to the reference light striking the film is called the Beam Branching Ratio. The technology has the potential for a wide range of applications. Aderholz, M. Holography has been used successfully in combination with conventional optics for the first time in a large cryogenic bubble chamber, the foot bubble chamber at Fermilab, during a physics run.
The ratio of intensities of the object light to the reference light striking the film is called the beam branching ratio. We obtained in our experiment an exceedingly small minimum- observable ratio of 0. Influences of large-scale convection and moisture source on monthly precipitation isotope ratios observed in Thailand, Southeast Asia.
Many paleoclimatic records in Southeast Asia rely on rainfall isotope ratios as proxies for past hydroclimatic variability. However, the physical processes controlling modern rainfall isotopic behaviors in the region is poorly constrained. Results show that rainfall isotope ratios are both correlated with local rainfall amount and regional outgoing longwave radiation, suggesting that rainfall isotope ratios in this region are controlled not only by local rain amount amount effect but also by large-scale convection.
As a transition zone between the Indian monsoon and the western North Pacific monsoon, the spatial difference of observed precipitation isotope among different sites are associated with moisture source. These results highlight the importance of regional processes in determining rainfall isotope ratios in the tropics and provide constraints on the interpretation of paleo-precipitation isotope records in the context of regional climate dynamics.
Odd-odd nuclei. Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ. Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value.
In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. The icy materials present in comets provide clues to the origin and evolution of our solar system and planetary systems. We also derive the intensity ratio of the green-to-red doublet of forbidden oxygen lines 0. However, this temperature is inconsistent with the nuclear spin temperatures of water and ammonia estimated from the OPRs.
The interpretation of the nuclear spin temperature as the temperature at molecular formation may therefore be incorrect. Lejoly, Cassandra; Howell, Ellen S. NEAs have a wide variety of taxonomic classes, surface features, and shapes, including spheroids, binary objects, contact binaries, elongated, as well as irregular bodies. Using the Arecibo Observatory planetary radar system, we have measured apparent rotation rate, radar reflectivity, apparent diameter, and radar albedos for over NEAs.
The radar albedo is defined as the radar cross-section divided by the geometric cross-section. If a shape model is available, the actual cross-section is known at the time of the observation. Otherwise we derive a geometric cross-section from a measured diameter. When radar imaging is available, the diameter was measured from the apparent range depth. However, when radar imaging was not available, we used the continuous wave CW bandwidth radar measurements in conjunction with the period of the object.
The CW bandwidth provides apparent rotation rate, which, given an independent rotation measurement, such as from lightcurves, constrains the size of the object. We assumed an equatorial view unless we knew the pole orientation, which gives a lower limit on the diameter.
We confirm the trend found by Benner et al. We have obtained a larger sample and can analyze additional trends with spin, size, rotation rate, taxonomic class, polarization ratio , and radar albedo to interpret the origin of the NEAs and their dynamical processes.
Additionally, we find more moderate radar albedos for the smallest NEAs when compared to those with diameters m. We will present additional trends we. Study on the high-spin states and signature inversion of odd-odd nucleus Ta. The systematic features of the signature inversion in semidecoupled bands in odd-odd rare earth nuclei were summarized.
The systematic differences of signature inversion, especially the difference in the energy splitting between the yrast hands and the semidecoupled hands in odd-odd rare earth nuclei are pointed out and discussed for the first time. It seems that p-n interaction between the odd proton and odd neutron in the odd-odd nuclei plays an important role. Urban environments are centers for rapidly growing populations. This practice creates isotopically distinct locations within an urban area and therefore provides insight to urban water management practices.
Within the SLV, municipal waters come from the same mountainous region, but are derived from different geologically distinct watersheds. In contrast, SFB waters are derived from regionally distinct water sources. We hypothesized that the isotope ratios of tap waters would differ based upon known municipal sources. Seasonal collections were also made to assess if isotope ratios differed throughout the year.
These different realms also agreed with known differences in municipal water supplies within the general geographic region. Waters from different cities within Marin County showed isotopic differences, consistent with water derived from different local reservoirs. The complex relationship between sleep disorders and hormones could lead to alterations in the production of cortisol and testosterone in obstructive sleep apnea OSA patients. Ten subjects newly diagnosed with OSA, based on nocturnal polysomnography evaluation and excessive daytime sleepiness, and seven matched controls were consecutively recruited.
Cortisol and testosterone were measured in salivary samples collected upon awakening, at noon and in the evening. The main finding was that OSA subjects displayed hypocortisolism upon awakening and a significant reduction in testosterone concentration in the evening in comparison with the control group, which has maintained the physiological testosterone and cortisol diurnal fluctuation, with higher hormone concentrations in the morning and lower concentrations in the evening.
The imbalances in the anabolic-catabolic diurnal equilibrium suggest that OSA is associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, potentially an underlying cause of some of the neuropsychological comorbidities observed in OSA patients.
Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks. We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation.
The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used We suggest such procedures and show that their performance improve considerably on existing methods. We also suggest a goodness-of-fit test for the proportional odds assumption. We derive the large sample properties and provide estimators High-spin states in the transitional odd-odd nuclei Eu and Tb.
The 7 Li, 5n and 11 B, 5n reactions have been used to study the high-spin states in the two odd-odd nuclei Eu and Tb. The latter one is well developped and improves our knowledge of this system between the spherical and deformed region.
The analysis of the collective moment of inertia and transition ratios strongly suggests an increase of the deformation when the rotational frequency increases in these two transitional nuclei Eu and Tb. Cannon, John M.
These targets are drawn from a larger sample of systems that were not uniquely identified with optical counterparts during ALFALFA processing, and as such have unusually high H i mass to light ratios. These objects span a range of H i mass [7. Four of the sources with uncertain or no optical counterpart in the ALFALFA data are identified with low surface brightness optical counterparts in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging when compared with VLA H i intensity maps, and appear to be galaxies with clear signs of ordered rotation in the H i velocity fields.
Three of these are detected in far-ultraviolet GALEX images, a likely indication of star formation within the last few. Three of these are detected in far-ultraviolet GALEX images, a likely indication of star formation within. Horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios HVRs of microtremors have been traditionally interpreted theoretically as representing the Rayleigh wave ellipticity or just utilized a convenient tool to extract predominant periods of ground. The same diffuse field concept leads us to derive a simple formula for earthquake HVRs EHVRs , that is, the ratio of the horizontal motion on the surface for a vertical incidence of S wave divided by the vertical motion on the surface for a vertical incidence of P wave with a fixed coefficient Kawase et al.
The difference for EHVRs comes from the fact that primary contribution of earthquake motions would be of plane body waves. With these theoretical solutions we need to re-focus our attention on the difference of HVRs. Thus we have compared here HVRs at several dozens of strong motion stations in Japan. As previously reported, their general shapes share the common features. Especially their fundamental peak and trough frequencies show quite a good match to each other.
When we calculated theoretical HVRs separately at these target sites, their basic characteristics correspond to these observed differences. At this. The conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei is discussed. A very simple explanation is suggested for the damping of the energy spacing of the lowest levels in the rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei with the 'conflicting' coupling of an odd proton and an odd neutron comparative to those of the bands based on the state of a strongly coupled particle in the neighboring odd nucleus entering the 'conflicting' configuration.
Influence of triaxiality on the signature inversion in odd-odd nuclei. Complete text of publication follows. The systematic occurrence of signature inversion in this mass region is discussed in Refs. According to this model the signature inversion is caused by the competition between the Coriolis and the proton-neutron residual interactions in low K space. Recent observations of chiral band structures in the nearby Rh nuclei suggest a possibility of triaxiality in these nuclei, too.
In the present work we examined the possible influence of triaxiality on the signature inversion using a triaxial rotor plus two-quasiparticle model and compared the results with the experimental data of 98 Rh and Rh. The calculations provided a better agreement with the experiment than the axially symmetric calculations. Compared to the axially symmetric case, the triaxiality applied in the Hamiltonian enlarges the amplitudes of high-spin signature zigzags at small triaxial deformation and might push the.
Calculations are performed by using a triaxial rotor plus two-quasiparticle model and are compared with the experimentally observed signature inversions. The calculations reproduce well the observations and suggest that, in these bands, the signature inversion can be interpreted mainly as a competition between the Coriolis and the proton-neutron residual interactions in low K space.
The triaxiality applied in the Hamiltonian enlarges the amplitudes of high spin signature zigzags at small triaxial deformation and might push the signature inversion point to higher spin at large triaxial deformation. The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case.
Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics.
The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included.
This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical.
Ordinal data appear in a wide variety of scientific fields. These data are often analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models that assume proportional odds. When this assumption is not met, it may be possible to capture the lack of proportionality using a constrained structural relationship between the odds and the cut-points of the ordinal values Peterson and Harrell, We consider a trend odds version of this constrained model, where the odds parameter increases or decreases in a monotonic manner across the cut-points.
We demonstrate algebraically and graphically how this model is related to latent logistic, normal, and exponential distributions. In particular, we find that scale changes in these potential latent distributions are consistent with the trend odds assumption, with the logistic and exponential distributions having odds that increase in a linear or nearly linear fashion. We show how to fit this model using SAS Proc Nlmixed, and perform simulations under proportional odds and trend odds processes.
We find that the added complexity of the trend odds model gives improved power over the proportional odds model when there are moderate to severe departures from proportionality. A hypothetical dataset is used to illustrate the interpretation of the trend odds model, and we apply this model to a Swine Influenza example where the proportional odds assumption appears to be violated.
The trend odds model for ordinal data. When this assumption is not met, it may be possible to capture the lack of proportionality using a constrained structural relationship between the odds and the cut-points of the ordinal values. We consider a trend odds version of this constrained model, wherein the odds parameter increases or decreases in a monotonic manner across the cut-points.
A hypothetical data set is used to illustrate the interpretation of the trend odds model, and we apply this model to a swine influenza example wherein the proportional odds assumption appears to be violated. The high-spin states of Lu are populated by the fusion-evaporation reaction Sm 19 F,3n Lu at beam energies of 90 and MeV. A new level scheme of Lu is established. High-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 74 Br were investigated via the reactions 58 Ni 19 F,2pn 74 Br and 65 Cu 12 C,3n 74 Br at beam energies of 62 and 50 MeV, respectively.
On the basis of coincidence data new levels have been introduced and partly grouped into rotational bands. Thus, an excitation energy of The level sequences observed are interpreted in terms of Nilsson configurations in conjunction with collective excitations.
Pattern of comorbidity among anxious and odd personality disorders: the case of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of comorbidity among obsessive-compulsive personality disorder OCPD and other personality disorders PDs in a sample of psychiatric inpatients. In light of these observations , issues associated with the nosologic status of OCPD within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders clustering system remain unsettled.
Modeling whole-tree carbon assimilation rate using observed transpiration rates and needle sugar carbon isotope ratios. In this study, we used a simple approach to estimate whole-tree CO 2 assimilation rate A Tree in a subalpine forest ecosystem. The estimated WUE was then combined with observations of tree transpiration rate E using sap flow techniques to estimate A Tree. Estimates of A Tree for the three dominant tree species in the forest were combined with species distribution and tree size to estimate and gross primary productivity GPP using an ecosystem process model.
At the ecosystem scale, the abundance of lodgepole pine trees influenced seasonal dynamics in GPP considerably more than Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir because of its greater sensitivity of E to seasonal climate variation. Both oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds, OVOC, are key intermediate species produced during the oxidation of precursor hydrocarbons.
Their short lifetime of a few hours in the lower troposphere links them to emission sources and makes them useful tracers of photochemical activity. The highest column amounts of these OVOCs are recorded over regions with enhance biogenic emissions e. Enhanced OVOC values are also present over areas of anthropogenic activity and biomass burning e. America, Europe and Australia. The ratio of CHO. R GF s below 0. This decreasing tendency of R GF with increasing NO 2 is also observed when analyzing data for individual large cities, indicating that it is a common feature.
This is explained by the excellent correlation of the global retrieved column amounts of CHO. The Odd Power of Dispersion. In ancient China, water has been regarded as one of the five vital components of life. However, little did people understand why and how water possesses such fascinating properties. Modern scientific developments made people realize that the macroscopic liquid water is made of a large number of water molecules held together via a network of hydrogen bonds.
And those wonderful properties of water are merely the macroscopic manifestations of the interactions between water molecules and other molecules. For example, the dissolving ability of water is due to the fact that the interaction between a water molecule and the other molecular species is stronger than the interactions among their own molecular species.
Although the very existence of the intermolecular interactions is easily proved, e. On the practical side, theoreticians need to balance computational cost and accuracy. Because of the relatively small magnitudes of the intermolecular interactions, errors that appear tiny compared to the usual chemical covalent bonding may change. Degenerate odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables.
A linear degenerate odd Poisson bracket antibracket realized solely on Grassmann variables is proposed. Each of the heavier odd-odd isotopes, namely, Pm, Pm and Pm, have multiple low-lying isomers, almost all of them with undefined configuration and also undefined energy placement. Present investigations attempt credible characterization of the isomers using a simplified two-quasiparticle rotor model which has been widely employed for description of odd-odd deformed nuclei.
Odd -frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures. We review the theory of odd -frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures, where an odd -frequency pairing component is induced near interfaces. A general description of the superconducting proximity effect in a normal metal or a ferromagnet attached to an unconventional superconductor S is given within quasiclassical kinetic theory for various types of symmetry state in S.
Various possible symmetry classes in a superconductor are considered which are consistent with the Pauli principle: even-frequency spin-singlet even-parity ESE state, even-frequency spin-triplet odd -parity ETO state, odd -frequency spin-triplet even-parity OTE state and odd -frequency spin-singlet odd -parity OSO state.
As an example, we consider a junction between a diffusive normal metal DN and a p-wave superconductor even-frequency spin-triplet odd -parity symmetry , where the pairing amplitude in DN belongs to an odd -frequency spin-triplet even-parity symmetry class. Covariant Density Functionals: time- odd channel investigated. The description of exotic nuclear systems and phenomena requires a detailed understanding of all channels of density functional theories. The role of time- odd mean fields, their evidence in experiment, and an accurate description of these fields are subject of current interest.
Recent studies advanced the understanding of these fields in energy density functional theories based on the Skyrme force [1,2]. Time- odd mean fields are related to nuclear magnetism in covariant density functional CDF theories . They arise from space-like components of vector mesons and Lorentz invariance requires that their coupling strengths are identical to that of time-like components.
There were only few limited efforts to understand the role of time- odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory [4,5]. For example, the microscopic role of nuclear magnetism and its impact on rotational properties of nuclei has been studied in Ref. It is known that time- odd mean fields modify the angular momentum content of the single-particle orbitals and thus the moments of inertia, effective alignments, alignment gains at the band crossings and other physical observables.
We aim on more detailed and systematic understanding of the role of time- odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory. This investigation covers both rotating and non-rotating systems. It is shown that contrary to the Skyrme energy density functionals time- odd mean fields of CDF theory always provide additional binding in the systems with broken time-reversal symmetry rotating nuclei, odd mass nuclei. This additional binding increases with spin and has its maximum exactly at the terminating state , where it can reach several MeV.
The impact of time- odd mean fields on the properties of rotating systems has been studied in a systematic way as a function of particle number and deformation across the nuclear chart . In addition, this contribution extends these studies to non-rotating systems such as. Observations of molecular hydrogen mixing ratio and stable isotopic composition at the Cabauw tall tower in the Netherlands.
Batenburg, A. We complement these with observations from the Cabauw tall tower at the CESAR site, situated in a densely populated region of the Netherlands. The source signature of the Northwest European vehicle fleet may have shifted to somewhat lower values due to changes in vehicle technology and driving conditions. Even so, the surprisingly depleted apparent source signature at Cabauw requires additional explanation; microbial H2 production seems the most likely cause.
The Cabauw tower site also allowed us to sample vertical profiles. This confirms the limited role of soil uptake around Cabauw, and again points to microbial H2 production during an extended growing season, as well as to possible differences in average fossil fuel combustion source signature between the different footprint areas of the sampling levels.
So, although knowledge of the background cycle of H2 has improved over the last decade, surprising. The odd side of torsion geometry. These are normal almost contact metric manifolds that admit a unique compatible connection with 3-form torsion. Any odd -dimensional compact Lie group is sho Linear odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables.
A linear odd Poisson bracket antibracket realized solely in terms of Grassmann variables is suggested. Copyright c Elsevier Science B. The observed gamma-ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes.
This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in In is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B E2 val Ekstroem, A. Leuven Belgium ; Iwanicki, J. Leuven Belgium ; Voulot, D. Limits on B E2 values have been extracted where possible. Automobile sunshades always fold into an " odd " number of loops.
The explanation why involves elementary topology braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples , and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group. No significant signal is found, and upper limits on the product branching ratios are set. Alpha-cluster preformation factor within cluster-formation model for odd -A and odd-odd heavy nuclei. The alpha-cluster probability that represents the preformation of alpha particle in alpha-decay nuclei was determined for high-intensity alpha-decay mode odd -A and odd-odd heavy nuclei, 82 CSR and the hypothesised cluster-formation model CFM as in our previous work.
Our previous successful determination of phenomenological values of alpha-cluster preformation factors for even-even nuclei motivated us to expand the work to cover other types of nuclei. The formation energy of interior alpha cluster needed to be derived for the different nuclear systems with considering the unpaired-nucleon effect. The results showed the phenomenological value of alpha preformation probability and reflected the unpaired nucleon effect and the magic and sub-magic effects in nuclei.
These results and their analyses presented are very useful for future work concerning the calculation of the alpha decay constants and the progress of its theory. We present a general theory of the proximity effect in junctions between unconventional superconductors and diffusive normal metals DN or ferromagnets DF.
We consider all possible symmetry classes in a superconductor allowed by the Pauli principle: even-frequency spin-singlet even-parity state, even-frequency spin-triplet odd -parity state, odd -frequency spin-triplet even-parity state and odd -frequency spin-singlet odd -parity state. For each of the above states, symmetry and spectral properties of the induced pair amplitude in the DN DF are determined.
The cases of junctions with spin-singlet s- and d-wave superconductors and spin-triplet p-wave superconductors are adressed in detail. We discuss the interplay between the proximity effect and midgap Andreev bound states arising at interfaces in unconventional d- or p-wave junctions. The most striking property is the odd -frequency symmetry of the pairing amplitude induced in DN DF in contacts with p-wave superconductors.
This leads to zero-energy singularity in the density of states and to anomalous screening of an external magnetic field. Peculiarities of Josephson effect in d- or p-wave junctions are discussed. Experiments are suggested to detect an order parameter symmetry using heterostructures with unconventional superconductors. Estimation of food composition of Hodotermes mossambicus Isoptera: Hodotermitidae based on observations and stable carbon isotope ratios.
Full Text Available , observations Discussion Observations A widely used method of studying feeding habits in termites is by assessing the choice Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78, 1? LaFage, J. Nutrient Dynamics of Termites ed. Brian , pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. McKechnie, A. Cernicharo, J. On chiral- odd Generalized Parton Distributions. Phys Letters B,, In addition, a consistent classification of the chiral- odd pion GPDs beyond the leading twist 2 is presented.
Based on QCD equations of motion and on the invariance under rotation on the light-cone of any scattering amplitude involving such GPDs, we reduce the basis of these chiral- odd GPDs to a minimal set. Going away from closed shell, the shell model calculations rapidly exhaust computer capabilities and we must resort to the model observed on collective phenomena. The odd-odd nuclei are described in the framework of the IBFFM by coupling valence shell proton and neutron quasiparticles to even-even core described in the interacting - boson model.
In the first step of the calculations the core parameters for 60 Zn and 64 Ge cores were fitted to the energies of their excited states. We have finally calculated the level spectra and electromagnetic properties of above mentioned nuclei. The calculations show a reasonable agreement with experimental data and existing shell - model calculations.
Global momentum is building for drastic, regulated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decade. With this increasing regulation comes a clear need for increasingly sophisticated monitoring, reporting, and verification MRV strategies capable of enforcing and optimizing emissions-related policy, particularly as it applies to urban areas. Urban surface monitors can offer the desired proximity to individual greenhouse gas sources, but due to the densely-packed nature of typical urban landscapes, surface observations are rarely representative of a single source.
Most previous efforts to decompose these complex signals into their contributing emission processes have involved inverse atmospheric modeling techniques, which are computationally intensive and believed to depend heavily on poorly understood a priori estimates of error covariance.
Here we present a number of transparent, low-computation approaches for extracting source-specific emissions estimates from signals with a variety of nearfield influences. Using observations from the first several years of the BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network BEACO2N , we demonstrate how to exploit strategic pairings of monitoring "nodes," anomalous wind conditions, and well-understood temporal variations to hone in on specific CO2 sources of interest.
When evaluated against conventional, activity-based bottom-up emission inventories, these strategies are seen to generate quantitatively rigorous emission estimates. With continued application as the BEACO2N data set grows in time and space, these approaches offer a promising avenue for optimizing greenhouse gas mitigation strategies into the future.
Non-adiabatic description of proton emission from the odd-odd nucleus Eu. Full Text Available We discuss the non-adiabatic quasiparticle approach for calculating the rotational spectra and decay width of odd-odd proton emitters. The Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wave functions.
This study provides us with an opportunity to look into the details of wave functions of deformed odd-odd nuclei to which the proton emission halflives are quite sensitive. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition.
Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic? This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general….
The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism. There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. The study of yrast and near-yrast structures of odd-odd nuclei to high spins is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the spectra resulting from the many proton-neutron couplings near the Fermi surface.
In superdeformed nuclei, the number of available protons and neutrons near the Fermi surface is somewhat limited due to the presence of large-shell gaps which stabilize the nuclear shape. A relatively small number of available neutron and proton configurations can lead to fragmentation of the SD intensity into a number of different bands.
Analysis is underway and four of the six bands were confirmed. The reasons that two of the reported bands were not observed in this latest work is still under investigation.
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He found a way to become one of our best. Our players are thinking about Vanderbilt. Watching the video, I felt like there was a struggle with Saben. I feel like the buy-in that Scotty Pippen Jr. They recruited Scotty. Saben Lee is a problem. Scotty does everything for them. Advertise With Us Contact Us. Home Football All. Around the SEC. Football News. Football Recruiting.
Tennessee specialist announces transfer destination. Vols make top six for in-state offensive lineman. Josh Heupel hires Tennessee native to recruiting staff. Josh Heupel adds former SEC staffer to offensive coaching staff. Basketball News.
Basketball Recruiting. Where Tennessee basketball is ranked: Week of Feb. Five Observations: No. Johnson, Springer guide No. Basketball Video. Entertainment Video. Football Video. Everything Rick Barnes said after losing to Ole Miss. Feb 10, Feb 8, Tennessee specialist announces transfer destination Feb 10, Vols make top six for in-state offensive lineman Feb 8, Josh Heupel hires Tennessee native to recruiting staff Feb 8, Oliver remained tight-lipped after the scandal erupted early last month, seeing him lose rides in the Caulfield Cup and Cox Plate.
He continued to ride and won the Thousand Guineas and Victoria Derby, before the controversy deepened on the morning of the Melbourne Cup when it was reported that he admitted the bet was made. The report threatened to overshadow the Cup, in which Oliver rode one of the fancies, Americain, into 11th place.
Oliver's place in Australian racing folklore was cemented with his Melbourne Cup win on Media Puzzle, which came just days after his brother Jason died following a fall in a barrier trial. He sits third in the all-time honour roll of Australian Group One-winning jockeys.
We acknowledge Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples as the First Australians and Traditional Custodians of the lands where we live, learn, and work. News Home. He will serve a concurrent one-month ban for using a mobile phone. I feared I would lose my marriage. Oliver stood down over betting charges.
Happy ending for Oliver in the Emirates. Oliver betting claims overshadow Cup build-up. More on:. Gallant Venus Williams plays through injury in heroic Australian Open loss. Novak Djokovic survives scare to reach third round, Stan Wawrinka goes down in five-set epic. Top Stories Peter Dutton's office fast-tracked one-off grant proposal days after donation given to support him. Woman allegedly kept as slave in Melbourne was found 'emaciated', court hears. South Australia implements hard border with Greater Melbourne.
Russia issues arrest warrant for key Alexei Navalny ally who is calling for further protests. James Packer's company severs final ties with Crown board after damning casino report. Melbourne's Holiday Inn cluster has now grown to eight people. Here's what we know. The video played at the Trump impeachment trial that left the US Senate in silence. Teen accused of breaking into Townsville crash victim's home shouts abuse in court as magistrate flees.
Throttle malfunction may have caused Sriwijaya Air jet to crash into sea off Jakarta.
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I think he broke his toe several weeks ago. He found a way to become one of our best. Our players are thinking about Vanderbilt. Watching the video, I felt like there was a struggle with Saben. I feel like the buy-in that Scotty Pippen Jr. They recruited Scotty. Saben Lee is a problem. Scotty does everything for them. Advertise With Us Contact Us. Home Football All. Around the SEC. Football News. Football Recruiting.
Tennessee specialist announces transfer destination. Vols make top six for in-state offensive lineman. Josh Heupel hires Tennessee native to recruiting staff. Josh Heupel adds former SEC staffer to offensive coaching staff.
Basketball News. Basketball Recruiting. Where Tennessee basketball is ranked: Week of Feb. Five Observations: No. No matter what, now the mother will do anything to ensure her little girl lives as long as possible.
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The treatment coefficient in such a weighted regression estimates the natural direct effect of treatment on the outcome, and indirect effects are identified by subtracting direct effects from total effects. Weighting renders treatment and mediators independent, thereby deactivating indirect pathways of the mediators. This new mediation technique accommodates multiple discrete or continuous mediators.
IORW is easily implemented and is appropriate for any standard regression model, including quantile regression and survival analysis. An empirical example is given using data from the Moving to Opportunity experiment, testing whether neighborhood context mediated the effects of a housing voucher program on obesity.
For permissions, please e-mail: journals. Study Objectives: To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram EEG. Design: Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Setting: Research laboratory. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands.
The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges 10, possible patterns. Conclusions: Our results support the use of the odds ratio product ORP as a continuous measure of sleep depth. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state. SLEEP ;38 4 — Misuse of odds ratios in obesity literature: an empirical analysis of published studies. Odds ratios ORs are widely used in scientific research to demonstrate the associations between outcome variables and covariates risk factors of interest, and are often described in language suitable for risks or probabilities, but odds and probabilities are related, not equivalent.
In situations where the outcome is not rare e. We reviewed all issues of these journals to identify all articles that presented ORs. Included articles were then primarily reviewed for correct presentation and interpretation of ORs; and secondarily reviewed for article characteristics that may have been associated with how ORs are presented and interpreted. Of the articles examined, 62 7.
ORs were presented incorrectly in Clinical articles were more likely to present ORs correctly than social science or basic science articles. Studies with outcome variables that had higher relative prevalence were less likely to present ORs correctly. Overall, almost one-quarter of the studies presenting ORs in two leading journals on obesity misinterpreted them. Furthermore, even when researchers present ORs correctly, the lay media may misinterpret them as relative RRs.
Therefore, we suggest that when the magnitude of associations is of interest, researchers should carefully and accurately present interpretable measures of association--including RRs and risk differences--to minimize confusion and misrepresentation of research results. Likelihood ratio and posterior odds in forensic genetics: Two sides of the same coin.
It has become widely accepted in forensics that, owing to a lack of sensible priors, the evidential value of matching DNA profiles in trace donor identification or kinship analysis is most sensibly communicated in the form of a likelihood ratio LR. This restraint does not abate the fact that the posterior odds PO would be the preferred basis for returning a verdict. FDP is intended to provide leads to the police investigation helping them to find unknown trace donors that are unidentifiable by DNA profiling.
This apparent discrepancy has led to confusion as to when LR or PO is the appropriate outcome of forensic DNA analysis to be communicated to the investigating authorities. In so doing, we also addressed the influence of population affiliation on LR and PO. The actual degree of independence, however, is a matter of i how much of the causality of the respective EVC is captured by the genetic markers used for FDP and ii by the extent to which non-genetic such as environmental causal factors of the same EVC are distributed equally throughout populations.
The fact that an LR should be communicated in cases of DNA profiling whereas the PO are suitable for FDP does not conflict with theory, but rather reflects the immanent differences between these two forensic applications of DNA information. Interpretation of genetic association studies: markers with replicated highly significant odds ratios may be poor classifiers.
Full Text Available Recent successful discoveries of potentially causal single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs for complex diseases hold great promise, and commercialization of genomics in personalized medicine has already begun. The hope is that genetic testing will benefit patients and their families, and encourage positive lifestyle changes and guide clinical decisions.
However, for many complex diseases, it is arguable whether the era of genomics in personalized medicine is here yet. We focus on the clinical validity of genetic testing with an emphasis on two popular statistical methods for evaluating markers. The two methods, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic ROC curve analysis, are applied to our age-related macular degeneration dataset. Additionally, we present examples for four other diseases for which strongly associated variants have been discovered.
Nine SNPs were not sufficient to improve the discrimination power over that of nongenetic predictors for risk of cardiovascular events. Finally, in Crohn's disease, a model of five SNPs, one with a quite low odds ratio of 0. Our analyses and examples show that strong association, although very valuable for establishing etiological hypotheses, does not guarantee effective discrimination between cases and controls.
The scientific community should be cautious to avoid overstating the value of association findings in terms. Assessing neural activity related to decision-making through flexible odds ratio curves and their derivatives. It is well established that neural activity is stochastically modulated over time.
Therefore, direct comparisons across experimental conditions and determination of change points or maximum firing rates are not straightforward. This study sought to compare temporal firing probability curves that may vary across groups defined by different experimental conditions. Odds-ratio OR curves were used as a measure of comparison, and the main goal was to provide a global test to detect significant differences of such curves through the study of their derivatives. An algorithm is proposed that enables ORs based on generalized additive models, including factor-by-curve-type interactions to be flexibly estimated.
Bootstrap methods were used to draw inferences from the derivatives curves, and binning techniques were applied to speed up computation in the estimation and testing processes. A simulation study was conducted to assess the validity of these bootstrap-based tests. This methodology was applied to study premotor ventral cortex neural activity associated with decision-making. The proposed statistical procedures proved very useful in revealing the neural activity correlates of decision-making in a visual discrimination task.
Single nucleotide polymorphism barcoding to evaluate oral cancer risk using odds ratio -based genetic algorithms. Full Text Available Cancers often involve the synergistic effects of gene—gene interactions, but identifying these interactions remains challenging. Here, we present an odds ratio -based genetic algorithm OR-GA that is able to solve the problems associated with the simultaneous analysis of multiple independent single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs that are associated with oral cancer.
The GA can effectively identify a specific SNP barcode that has an optimized fitness value and uses this to calculate the difference between the case and control groups. The SNP barcodes with a low fitness value are naturally removed from the population. Using two to four SNPs, the best SNP barcodes with maximum differences in occurrence between the case and control groups were generated by GA algorithm. Subsequently, the OR provides a quantitative measure of the multiple SNP synergies between the oral cancer and control groups by calculating the risk related to the best SNP barcodes and others.
When these were compared to their corresponding non-SNP barcodes, the estimated ORs for oral cancer were found to be great than 1 [approx. In meta-analysis of odds ratios ORs , heterogeneity between the studies is usually modelled via the additive random effects model REM. The multiplicative factor in this overdispersion model ODM can be interpreted as an intra-class correlation ICC parameter. This model naturally arises when the probabilities of an event in one or both arms of a comparative study are themselves beta-distributed, resulting in beta-binomial distributions.
We propose two new estimators of the ICC for meta-analysis in this setting. One is based on the inverted Breslow-Day test, and the other on the improved gamma approximation by Kulinskaya and Dollinger , p. The performance of these and several other estimators of ICC on bias and coverage is studied by simulation. Additionally, the Mantel-Haenszel approach to estimation of ORs is extended to the beta-binomial model, and we study performance of various ICC estimators when used in the Mantel-Haenszel or the inverse-variance method to combine ORs in meta-analysis.
The Mantel-Haenszel-based estimator of OR is very biased and is not recommended. Developed methods and R programs, provided in the Web Appendix, make the beta-binomial model a feasible alternative to the standard REM for meta-analysis of ORs. This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio OOR , which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression.
It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…. Media attention and the influence on the reporting odds ratio in disproportionality analysis : an example of patient reporting of statins. Aim To study the influence of media attention about statins and ADRs on the level of disproportionality, expressed as the reporting odds ratio ROR for statins in the Lareb database, based on patients' reports.
Methods Patient reports about statins, before and after the broadcast of a consumer. Predictors of positive health in disability pensioners: a population-based questionnaire study using Positive Odds Ratio. Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of ill-health have been studied far more than determinants of good and improving health. Health promotion measures are important even among individuals with chronic diseases.
The aim of this study was to find predictors of positive subjective health among disability pensioners DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Methods Two questionnaire surveys were performed among DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Two groups were defined: DPs with positive health and negative health, respectively. In consequence with the health perspective in this study the conception Positive Odds Ratio was defined and used in the logistic regression analyses instead of the commonly used odds ratio.
Conclusion Positive odds ratio is a concept well adapted to theories of health promotion. It can be used in relation to positive outcomes instead of risks. Suggested health promotion and secondary prevention efforts among individuals with musculoskeletal disorders are 1 to avoid a disability pension for individuals. E2,M1 Multipole mixing ratios in odd -mass nuclei, A survey is presented of the E2,M1 mxing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in odd -mass nuclei with 59 ratios is included, based on averages of results from various studies.
The survey includes data available in the literature up to September Genome-wide association studies GWAS have identified thousands of loci that are robustly associated with complex diseases. The use of linear mixed model LMM methodology for GWAS is becoming more prevalent due to its ability to control for population structure and cryptic relatedness and to increase power.
The odds ratio OR is a common measure of the association of a disease with an exposure e. However, when the LMM is applied to all-or-none traits it provides estimates of genetic effects on the observed scale, a different scale to that in logistic regression. This limits the comparability of results across studies, for example in a meta-analysis, and makes the interpretation of the magnitude of an effect from an LMM GWAS difficult.
In this study, we derived transformations from the genetic effects estimated under the LMM to the OR that only rely on summary statistics. To test the proposed transformations, we used real genotypes from two large, publicly available data sets to simulate all-or-none phenotypes for a set of scenarios that differ in underlying model, disease prevalence, and heritability. Furthermore, we applied these transformations to GWAS summary statistics for type 2 diabetes generated from , individuals in the UK Biobank.
In both simulation and real-data application, we observed very high concordance between the transformed OR from the LMM and either the simulated truth or estimates from logistic regression. The transformations derived and validated in this study improve the comparability of results from prospective and already performed LMM GWAS on complex diseases by providing a reliable transformation to a common comparative scale for the genetic effects.
Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios PR or odds ratios OR are possible.
In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case—control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. The aims of this study were 1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and 2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly.
An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine.
From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis.
Results of the multivariate models. Odds ratios for hip- and lower forearm fracture using peripheral bone densitometry; a case-control study of postmenopausal women. The main aim of this study is, therefore, to assess the possibility of expressing ultrasound measurements at the heel and bone mineral density BMD measured at the distal forearm as fracture odds ratios The odds ratio for hip fracture was 3.
Pseudoscalar top-Higgs coupling: exploration of CP- odd observables to resolve the sign ambiguity. The proposed observables are based on triple product TP correlations that we extract from the expression for the differential cross section in terms of the spin vectors of the top and antitop quarks. We also show that the most promising observables can still disentangle the CP-mixed scenarios when the number of events is reduced to values consistent with expectations for the Large Hadron Collider in the near term.
Odd Structures Are Odd. Potential misinterpretation of treatment effects due to use of odds ratios and logistic regression in randomized controlled trials. This study determined the frequency of use of ORs, the frequency of overestimation of the OR as compared with its accompanying RR in published RCTs, and we assessed how often regression models that calculate RRs were used.
If an OR was reported, we calculated the corresponding RR, and we calculated the percentage of overestimation by using the formula. In five RCTs 2. Nineteen of these RCTs 6. Of 53 RCTs that adjusted for baseline variables, 15 used logistic regression. Although the authors did not explicitly misinterpret these ORs as RRs, misinterpretation by readers can seriously affect treatment decisions and policy making. Opinion Paper: 'Likelihood- ratio ' and ' odds ' applied to monitoring of patients as a supplement to 'reference change value' RCV.
Thus, two frequency distributions of differences are assumed, one for a stable, steady-state, situation and one for a certain change. Values exceeding a measured P- odd effects observed in the reactions with neutrons and isospin structure of weak nucleon-nucleon interaction.
Application of resonance phase for two quasi-stationary states with similar spin and unlike parity is shown to enable to coordinate the experimentally observed signed dependence of P- odd effects in neutron reactions with the theory. The developed approach enables to obtain information on isospin structure of a weak nucleon-nucleon interaction [ru.
Resonance phase and sings of P- odd and P-even effects, observable in the reactions with neutrons. It is shown that introduction of the resonance phase for two quasistationary states with a similar spin and counter parity makes it possible to correlate the sing dependence of both the P- odd and P-even effects, experimentally observed in the reactions with neutrons.
The common description of such effects enables determination of the theory unknown free parameters from the experiment [ru. CP odd observables for the t t-bar system produced at p p-bar and pp colliders. Some CP odd observables are proposed to test CP invariance in the t t-bar system proceeded at p p-bar and pp colliders. As CP violation can appear both in the production and in the decays of the top quarks, it is important to separate the effects from each other by using different observables.
These will be discussed and some comments on using the observables for pp colliders are also made. Numerical results for these observables are given together with their sensitivity to the new CP violating interactions. Comparing the odds of postpartum haemorrhage in planned home birth against planned hospital birth: results of an observational study of over , maternities in the UK. Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to compare the odds of postpartum haemorrhage among women who opt for home birth against the odds of postpartum haemorrhage for those who plan a hospital birth.
It is an observational study involving secondary analysis of maternity records, using binary logistic regression modelling. Conclusions Women and their partners should be advised that the risk of PPH is higher among births planned to take place in hospital compared to births planned to take place at home, but that further research is needed to understand a whether the same pattern applies to the more life-threatening categories of PPH, and b why hospital birth is associated with increased odds of PPH.
If it is due to the way in which labour is managed in hospital, changes should be made to practices which compromise the safety of labouring women. The aim of this study is to compare the odds of postpartum haemorrhage among women who opt for home birth against the odds of postpartum haemorrhage for those who plan a hospital birth. The data relate to pregnancies that received maternity care from one of fifteen hospitals in the former North West Thames Regional Health Authority Area in England, and which resulted in a live or stillbirth in the years inclusive, excluding 'high-risk' pregnancies, unplanned home births, pre-term births, elective Caesareans and medical inductions.
The 'home birth' group included women who were transferred to hospital during labour or shortly after birth. Women and their partners should be advised that the risk of PPH is higher among births planned to take place in hospital compared to births planned to take place at home, but that further research is needed to understand a whether the same pattern applies to the more life-threatening categories of PPH, and b why hospital birth is associated with increased odds of PPH.
Opium and bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the odds ratios for opium use and the risk of bladder cancer. The association between opium use and bladder cancer has been investigated in many studies, with varying reporting results reported. This study aims to estimate the total odds ratio for the association between bladder cancer and opium consumption using meta-analysis.
After systematic screening of the studies identified during the first step, Cochrane risk of bias tool was determined for the selected studies. The case-control and the cohort studies were investigated to assess risk of bladder cancer due to opium use. In addition, the cross-sectional studies were analysed separately to assess frequency of opium consumption. These estimates were combined using the inverse variance method. Fixed or random effect models were applied to combine the point odds ratios.
The heterogeneity between the primary results was assessed using the Cochran test and I-square index. The suspected factors for heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression models. An Egger test was conducted to identify any probable publication bias. Forest plots illustrated the point and pooled estimates. All analyses were performed using Stata version 14 software and RevMan version 5.
We included 17 primary studies 11 case-control, one cohort and five cross-sectional in the final meta-analysis. This meta-analysis showed that opium use similar to cigarette smoking and maybe with similar mechanisms can be a risk factor for bladder cancer.
It is therefore expected to be a risk factor. Serum osteoprotegerin OPG and the AG polymorphism in the OPG promoter region are related to peripheral measures of bone mass and fracture odds ratios. The A Interpreting the concordance statistic of a logistic regression model: relation to the variance and odds ratio of a continuous explanatory variable.
When outcomes are binary, the c-statistic equivalent to the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve is a standard measure of the predictive accuracy of a logistic regression model. An analytical expression was derived under the assumption that a continuous explanatory variable follows a normal distribution in those with and without the condition.
We then conducted an extensive set of Monte Carlo simulations to examine whether the expressions derived under the assumption of binormality allowed for accurate prediction of the empirical c-statistic when the explanatory variable followed a normal distribution in the combined sample of those with and without the condition. We also examine the accuracy of the predicted c-statistic when the explanatory variable followed a gamma, log-normal or uniform distribution in combined sample of those with and without the condition.
Under the assumption of binormality with equality of variances, the c-statistic follows a standard normal cumulative distribution function with dependence on the product of the standard deviation of the normal components reflecting more heterogeneity and the log- odds ratio reflecting larger effects.
Under the assumption of binormality with unequal variances, the c-statistic follows a standard normal cumulative distribution function with dependence on the standardized difference of the explanatory variable in those with and without the condition.
In our Monte Carlo simulations, we found that these expressions allowed for reasonably accurate prediction of the empirical c-statistic when the distribution of the explanatory variable was normal, gamma, log-normal, and uniform in the entire sample of those with and without the condition. The discriminative ability of a continuous explanatory variable cannot be judged by its odds ratio alone, but always needs to be considered in relation to the heterogeneity of the population.
MIPAS observations of longitudinal oscillations in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere: climatology of odd -parity daily frequency modes. Subtraction of the descending and ascending node measurements at each longitude only includes the longitudinal oscillations with odd daily frequencies nodd from the Sun's perspective at Contributions from the background atmosphere, daily-invariant zonal oscillations and tidal modes with even-parity daily frequencies vanish.
To our knowledge, this is the first time zonal oscillations in temperature have been derived pole to pole in this altitude range from a single instrument. MIPAS global measurements of longitudinal oscillations are useful for testing tide modeling in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region and as a lower boundary for models extending higher up in the atmosphere.
The relationships between odd - and branched-chain fatty acids to ruminal fermentation parameters and bacterial populations with different dietary ratios of forage and concentrate. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dietary ratios of forage and concentrate F:C on ruminal odd - and branched-chain fatty acids OBCFAs contents and to evaluate the relationships between OBCFA and ruminal fermentation parameters as well as bacterial populations tested by real-time PCR technique.
Three rumen-fistulated dry Holstein cows were fed three rations with different dietary F:C ratios F:C; , and In particular, the iso-fatty acids had potential power to predict butyrate and isoacids metabolized in the rumen, whereas the fatty acids with 17 carbon atoms correlated with ruminal NH 3 -N content. C and its isomers might be used to predict populations of fibrolytic bacteria.
This observer may be called a manifold absolute pres Full Text Available Dingus and colleagues Proc. This estimate is substantially higher than the effect sizes near one in prior real-world and naturalistic driving studies of conversation on wireless cellular devices whether hand-held, hands-free portable, or hands-free integrated. Two upward biases were discovered in the Dingus study. First, it selected many Talk-exposed drivers who simultaneously performed additional secondary tasks besides Talk but selected Talk-unexposed drivers with no secondary tasks.
Second, it included records with driver behavior errors, a confounding bias that was also removed by filtering out such records. After removing both biases, the Talk OR point estimates declined to below 1, now consistent with prior studies. Pooling the adjusted SHRP 2 Talk OR estimates with prior study effect size estimates to improve precision, the population effect size for wireless cellular conversation while driving is estimated as 0.
Abstract Background The aim of this study is to compare the odds of postpartum haemorrhage among women who opt for home birth against the odds of postpartum haemorrhage for those who plan a hospital birth. The data relate to pregnancies that received maternity care from one of fifteen hospitals in the former North West Thames Regional Health Authority Area in England, an With a fast rise in large-scale wind power development in Sweden and other countries in recent years, issues related to energy justice generally and distributional justice specifically have become concerns in windmill siting.
Some research, for instance, has indicated that it is easier to build windmills in economically marginalized communities. The evidence for this, however, is still limited. Thus, this study aims to statistically evaluate the extent to which the decisions to approve or reject windmill proposals in Sweden can be explained by factors related to the socio-economic characteristics of people living in the areas surrounding windmill sites.
The study is based on an odds ratio analysis of decisions on all windmill proposals in Sweden, in which geo-referenced socio-economic data on an individual level for all inhabitants within 3 and 10 km of the windmill sites are studied. The results show skewness in the distribution of windmills, with a higher likelihood of rejection in areas with more highly educated people and people working in the private sector, compared to a higher likelihood of approval in areas with more unemployed people.
This skewness, while not necessarily unjust, warrants further policy and research attention to distributional justice issues when developing wind power. Increased odds and predictive rates of MMPIRF scale elevations in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and observed sex differences. This can be of clinical utility, particularly when a diagnosis is uncertain.
This was completed for the overall sample, as well as the sample stratified by sex. The odds of elevations related to somatic concerns, negative mood, and suicidal ideation in the PNES sample ranged from 2 to 5 times more likely. PPV rates ranged from FDR across scales ranged from Female PNES patients endorsed greater emotional distress, including endorsement of suicide related items.
Elevations of these scales could aid in differentiating PNES from ES patients, although caution is warranted due to the possibility of both false positives and the incorrect omissions of PNES cases. High selenium exposure lowers the odds ratios for hypertension, stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with mercury exposure among Inuit in Canada. Selenium Se has been reported to protect against the neurotoxicity of mercury Hg. However, the effect of Se against Hg on cardiovascular diseases remains unclear.
Inuit living in the Arctic have high exposure to both Se and Hg through their marine mammal and fish rich traditional diet. To characterize the co-exposure of Hg and Se among Inuit in Canada and to assess the associations between Hg, Se and cardiovascular health outcomes, including stroke, hypertension, and myocardial infarction MI. Blood Se and Hg were measured, and self-report cardiovascular health outcomes were collected through a questionnaire interview from adults aged 18 and above.
The mean age was The geometric means GM of blood Se and total Hg were The crude prevalence of heart attack, stroke and hypertension were 3. The high Se and low Hg group had the lowest prevalence of cardiovascular outcomes, except for stroke. These results provide evidence that Se may exhibit a protective effect against Hg on cardiovascular disease. Dynamical symmetries for odd-odd nuclei.
Recent work for developing dynamical symmetries and supersymmetries is reviewed. An accurate description of odd-odd nuclei requires inclusion of the fermion-fermion force the residual interaction and the distinguishing of fermion configurations which are particle like and those which are hole like. A parabolic dependence of the proton-neutron multiplet in odd-odd nuclei is demonstrated.
It is shown that a group structure for Bose-Fermi symmetries can be embedded in a supergroup. These methods are used to predict level schemes for Au and Au Reviol, W. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.
Random interactions, isospin, and the ground states of odd -A and odd-odd nuclei. It was recently shown that the ground state quantum numbers of even-even nuclei have a high probability to be reproduced by an ensemble of random but rotationally invariant two-body interactions. In the present work we extend these investigations to odd -A and odd-odd nuclei, considering in particular the isospin effects.
Studying the realistic shell model as well as the single-j model, we show that random interactions have a tendency to assign the lowest possible total angular momentum and isospin to the ground state. In the sd shell model this reproduces correctly the isospin but not the spin quantum numbers of actual odd-odd nuclei. An odd -even staggering effect in probability of various ground state quantum numbers is present for even-even and odd-odd nuclei, while it is smeared out for odd -A nuclei.
The relation to the models of random spin interactions is briefly discussed. This implies that the large-scale narrow lines of AGN host galaxies carry information about the accretion state of the AGN central engine. We briefly discuss possible physical mechanisms behind this correlation, such as the mass-metallicity relation, X-ray heating, and radiatively driven outflows.
Democracy against the odds. Why have a number of poor countries sustained electoral democracy against the odds? The extant literature on democracy and democratization consistently points to the importance of socioeconomic development and democratic neighboring countries, in particular, as important prerequisites for a stable Power and type I error results for a bias-correction approach recently shown to provide accurate odds ratios of genetic variants for the secondary phenotypes associated with primary diseases.
We recently proposed a bias correction approach to evaluate accurate estimation of the odds ratio OR of genetic variants associated with a secondary phenotype, in which the secondary phenotype is associated with the primary disease, based on the original case-control data collected for the purpose of studying the primary disease. As reported in this communication, we further investigated the type I error probabilities and powers of the proposed approach, and compared the results to those obtained from logistic regression analysis with or without adjustment for the primary disease status.
We performed a simulation study based on a frequency-matching case-control study with respect to the secondary phenotype of interest. We examined the empirical distribution of the natural logarithm of the corrected OR obtained from the bias correction approach and found it to be normally distributed under the null hypothesis. On the basis of the simulation study results, we found that the logistic regression approaches that adjust or do not adjust for the primary disease status had low power for detecting secondary phenotype associated variants and highly inflated type I error probabilities, whereas our approach was more powerful for identifying the SNP-secondary phenotype associations and had better-controlled type I error probabilities.
Predicted versus observed cosmic-ray-produced noble gases in lunar samples: improved Kr production ratios. New sets of cross sections for the production of krypton isotopes from targets of Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr were constructed primarily on the bases of experimental excitation functions for Kr production from Y.
These cross sections were used to calculate galactic-cosmic-ray and solar-proton production rates for Kr isotopes in the moon. Spallation Kr data obtained from ilmenite separates of rocks and are reported. Production rates and isotopic ratios for cosmogenic Kr observed in ten well-documented lunar samples and in ilmenite separates and bulk samples from several lunar rocks with long but unknown irradiation histories were compared with predicted rates and ratios.
The agreements were generally quite good. Erosion of rock surfaces affected rates or ratios for only near-surface samples, where solar-proton production is important. There were considerable spreads in predicted-to- observed production rates of 83 Kr, due at least in part to uncertainties in chemical abundances.
Most predicted 84 Kr and 86 Kr production rates were lower than observed. Number of evaluated lymph nodes and positive lymph nodes, lymph node ratio , and log odds evaluation in early-stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: numerology or valid indicators of patient outcome? We evaluated the prognostic significance and universal validity of the total number of evaluated lymph nodes ELN , number of positive lymph nodes PLN , lymph node ratio LNR , and log odds of positive lymph nodes LODDS in a relatively large and homogenous cohort of surgically treated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma PDAC patients.
Prospectively accrued data were retrospectively analyzed for PDAC patients who had pancreaticoduodenectomy PD at our institution. Of these patients, patients LN positivity correlated with a greater number of evaluated lymph nodes; positive lymph nodes were identified in The Odd Shape Out task was an open-ended problem that engaged students in comparing shapes based on their properties. Four teachers submitted the work of students from across the country.
This article compares various student's responses to the task. The problem allowed for differentiation, as shown by the many different ways that students…. Vibrational-rotational model of odd-odd nuclei. The rotational vibrational RV model of odd nuclei is generalized to odd-odd nuclei. The hamiltonian, wave functions and matrix elements of the RV-model of odd-odd nuclei are obtained. The expressions obtained for matrix elements of the RV-model of odd-odd nuclei can be used to study the role of vibrational additions in low-lying two-particle states of odd-odd deformed nuclei.
Such calculations permit to study more correctly the residual neutron-proton interaction of valent nucleons with respect to collectivization effects. Etna — Etna at a distance of around 6 km downwind from the summit craters. During the same period and in addition to these measurements, volcanic observations were made by regularly visiting various parts of Mt.
Here, results from these measurements and observations are presented and their relation is discussed. However, there is still a limited understanding today because of the complexity with which halogens are released, depending on magma composition and degassing conditions. Our understanding of these processes is far from complete, for example of the rate and mechanism of bubble nucleation, growth and ascent in silicate melts Carroll and Holloway, , the halogen vapour-melt partitioning and the volatile diffusivity in the melt Aiuppa et al.
Towards the end of activity or shortly thereafter, the ratio increases to baseline values again and remains more or less constant during quiet phases. This model suggests that bromine, unlike chlorine and fluorine, is less soluble in the magmatic melt than sulphur. We also compare with observations of the distribution of Eddington ratios at a given AGN luminosity, and find similar good agreement but show that these observations are much less constraining.
We fit the functional form of the quasar lifetime distribution and provide these fits for use, and show how the Eddington ratio distributions place precise, tight limits on the AGN lifetimes at various luminosities, in agreement with model predictions. We compare with independent estimates of episodic lifetimes and use this to constrain the shape of the typical AGN light curve, and provide simple analytic fits to these for use in. Structure and symmetries of odd-odd triaxial nuclei.
Palit, R. Rotational spectra of odd-odd Rh and Ag isotopes are investigated with the primary motivation to search for the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking phenomenon in these nuclei. The experimental results obtained on the degenerate dipole bands of some of these isotopes using a large array of gamma detectors are discussed and studied using the triaxial projected shell TPSM approach. It is shown that, first of all, to reproduce the odd -even staggering of the known yrast bands of these nuclei, large triaxial deformation is needed.
This large triaxial deformation also gives rise to doublet band structures in many of these studied nuclei. The observed doublet bands in these isotopes are shown to be reproduced reasonably well by the TPSM calculations. Observable tensor-to-scalar ratio and secondary gravitational wave background. Signature inversion of the semi-decoupled band in the odd-odd nucleus Ta. The high-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus Ta have been studied by the Gd 19 F, 4n Ta reaction at the beam energy of 97 MeV.
Conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei. Phenomenological approach is described, using it, energy spectra of odd-odd nucleus collective bands based on conflicting state of unpaired nucleons can be calculated. It is ascertained that in a conflicting bond unpaired nucleon acts as a spectator, i.
Odd nitrogen production by meteoroids. The process by which odd nitrogen species atomic nitrogen and nitric oxide are formed during atmospheric entry of meteoroids is analyzed theoretically. An ablating meteoroid is assumed to be a point source of mass with a continuum regime evolving in its wake. The amounts of odd nitrogen species, produced by high-temperature reactions of air in the continuum wake, are calculated by numerical integration of chemical rate equations. Flow properties are assumed to be uniform across the wake, and 29 reactions involving five neutral species and five singly ionized species are considered, as well as vibrational and electron temperature nonequilibrium phenomena.
The results, when they are summed over the observed mass, velocity, and entry-angle distribution of meteoroids, provide odd -nitrogen-species annual global production rates as functions of altitude. The peak production of nitric oxide is found to occur at an altitude of about 85 km; atomic nitrogen production peaks at about 95 km. The total annual rate for nitric oxide is 40 million kg; for atomic nitrogen it is million kg. Theory and observation of compressional Alfven eigenmodes in low aspect ratio plasma.
A new theory of radially and poloidally localized Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes CAE in low aspect ratio plasma is reported. The frequency of observed CAEs is correlated with the characteristic Alfven velocity of the plasma. The observed high frequency modes are explained as CAEs driven by energetic beam ions. CAEs are destabilized by free energy in the energetic ion velocity space gradient via Doppler shifted cyclotron resonance with beam ions.
A source representation of microseisms constrained by HV spectral ratio observations. The microseisms are generated by pressure variation on the sea floor caused by incident and reflected ocean waves, and dominant background noises at short periods. The observations of microseism wave fields in deep sedimentary basins e.
A similar correlation has been found in teleseismic arrival times and P-wave amplitude as well as local-earthquake S-wave relative amplification [Dolenc et al. This observation infers that a study of microseism wave field, combined with other seismic data sets, can probably be used to invert for the velocity structures of the deep basins. To make this inversion possible, it is necessary to understand the excitation and propagation characteristics of microseisms. The optimal source representation of the microseisms will be the first step to accomplish inversions for 3D seismic velocity structure in sedimentary basins using microseisms.
The extreme-mass- ratio inspirals EMRIs of stellar mass compact objects into massive black holes in the centres of galaxies are an important source of low-frequency gravitational waves for space-based detectors. We develop a fully three-dimensional numerical code describing the diffusion of cosmic rays CRs in the Milky Way. It includes the nuclear spallation chain up to oxygen, and allows the study of various CR properties, such as the CR age, grammage traversed, and the ratio between secondary and primary particles.
This code enables us to explore a model in which a large fraction of the CR acceleration takes place in the vicinity of galactic spiral arms that are dynamic. We show that the effect of having dynamic spiral arms is to limit the age of CRs at low energies. This is because at low energies the time since the last spiral arm passage governs the CR age, and not diffusion.
Using the model, the observed spectral dependence of the secondary to primary ratio is recovered without requiring any further assumptions such as a galactic wind, re-acceleration or various assumptions on the diffusivity. In particular, we obtain a secondary to primary ratio which increases with energy below about 1 GeV.
Odd things, in odd places, in odd races Ferndale South African Odd things, in odd places, in odd races. No Abstract. South African Gastroenterology Vol. Quasiparticle features and level statistics of odd-odd nucleus. The energy levels of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y are calculated by using the axially symmetric rotor plus quasiparticles model.
The effect of the recoil term is small while the Coriolis force plays a major role in the spectral structure of 84 Y. Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides. The formulae applied to the eleven 11 cases of ground states show significant improvement over the results obtained using shell model. Configuration mixing and coriolis coupling is expected to cause further improvement in the results. Although the general expression holds for excited states as well but in lanthanide region, the experimental reports of magnetic dipole moments of excite states band heads of higher rational sequences are not available except in case of five 5 neutron resonance states which cannot be handled on the basis of the present approach with no configuration mixing.
Although in the present discussion, the model could not be applied to excited states but the systematics of change in its magnitude with increasing spin at higher rational states is very well understood. These systematics are to be verified whenever enough data for higher excited states are available.
Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy. In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements.
Lifetimes and magnetic moments in odd-odd 70 As. Both the rapid changes in structure and the shape coexistence appear to reflect the competition between the shell gaps which occur at large oblate and prolate deformations near nucleon numbers 36 and 38 for both protons and neutrons. Because no unique interpretation of the unusual features discovered in these nuclei exists, the systematic experimental study of structure of these nuclei is still an interesting subject. At energies between and keV a multiplet of negative parity levels has been observed.
Additional information is required in order to establish the structure of low and high-spin levels of both parities. From the measured lifetime for the 9. The paper treats a newly developed set of nonlinear observers for advanced spark ignition engine control Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei. A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy.
The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd -mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for Np, Am, and Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. Collinear wakefield acceleration has been long established as a method capable of generating ultrahigh acceleration gradients.
Because of the success on this front, recently, more efforts have shifted towards developing methods to raise the transformer ratio TR. This figure of merit is defined as the ratio of the peak acceleration field behind the drive bunch to the peak deceleration field inside the drive bunch. TR is always less than 2 for temporally symmetric drive bunch distributions and therefore recent efforts have focused on generating asymmetric distributions to overcome this limitation.
The diagnostic odds ratio : a single indicator of test performance. Diagnostic testing can be used to discriminate subjects with a target disorder from subjects without it. Several indicators of diagnostic performance have been proposed, such as sensitivity and specificity.
Using paired indicators can be a disadvantage in comparing the performance of competing. O' Leary, C. The new level scheme has two separate structures corresponding to spherical and prolate shapes. What makes red quasars red?. Observational evidence for dust extinction from line ratio analysis. Red quasars are very red in the optical through near-infrared NIR wavelengths, which is possibly due to dust extinction in their host galaxies as expected in a scenario in which red quasars are an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies and unobscured type 1 quasars.
In order to investigate why red quasars are red, we studied optical and NIR spectra of 20 red quasars at z 0. Furthermore, the Paschen to Balmer line ratios of red quasars are difficult to explain with plausible physical conditions without adopting the concept of the dust extinction.
The CFHD of red quasars are similar to, or marginally higher than, those of unobscured type 1 quasars. The Eddington ratios , computed for 19 out of 20 red quasars, are higher than those of unobscured type 1 quasars by factors of , and hence the moderate viewing angle scenario is disfavored. Consequently, these results strongly suggest the dust extinction that is connected to an enhanced nuclear activity as the origin of the red color of red quasars, which is consistent with the merger-driven quasar evolution scenario.
Full Table A. The purpose of this project was to develop, validate, and share one possible pedagogical technique using playing cards that could be employed to improve undergraduate understanding of…. Lellouch, E. The instrument aperture a rectangular slit. Can the cerebroplacental ratio CPR predict intrapartum fetal compromise? Objective: To investigate the potential clinical use of serial fetal CPR measurements during the last month of pregnancy for the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in unselected low-risk pregnancies.
Methods: A multicenter prospective observational cohort study in consecutively recruited low-risk pregnancies. All eligible pregnancies underwent serial sonographic evaluation of fetal weight and Doppler indices at two week intervals, from 36 weeks gestation until delivery. Data were A systematic study of odd-odd Gallium nuclei.
Allegro, P. Stefanescu et al. We have also performed calculations to study 67 Ge, an odd nucleus in the same mass region, in order to verify the behavior of the effective interactions in a nucleus without the proton-neutron interaction. C 76, Chiara et al. C 85, Sugawara et al. C 81, Depending on the nature of the phosphine, a variety of different supramolecular structures, including dimers, macrocycles, and coordination polymers, were observed in the solid state.
The in vitro antimicrobial activity in seven different pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans var. While all compounds show some activity against the bacteria, they were especially active against the fungus C.
The most active and at the same time least toxic compound was found to be the water-soluble complex [Ag camphSO3 PTA 2]. Redox reactions between polyoxometalates POMs and biologically relevant molecules have been virtually unexplored but are important, considering the growing interest in the biological applications of POMs.
CeIV-POMs have been shown to act as artificial proteases that promote the selective hydrolysis of peptide bonds. In presence of a protein, a concomitant reduction of CeIV to CeIII ion is frequently observed, leading us to examine the origins of this redox reaction by first using amino acid building blocks as simple models. While the redox reaction with Cys afforded the well-defined product cystine, no oxidation products were detected for the Trp, His, Tyr, and Phe amino acids after their reaction with CeIV-POMs, suggesting a radical pathway in which the solvent likely regenerates the amino acid.
In general, the rate of redox reactions increased upon increasing the pD, temperature, and ionic strength of the reaction. Moreover, the redox reaction is highly sensitive to the type of polyoxometalate scaffold, as complexation of CeIV to a Keggin K or Wells—Dawson WD polyoxotungstate anion resulted in a large difference in the rate of redox reaction for both Cys and aromatic amino acids.
The reaction of CeIVPOMs with a range of peptides containing redox-active amino acids revealed that the redox reaction is influenced by their coordination mode with CeIV ion, but in all examined peptides the redox reaction is favored in comparison to the hydrolytic cleavage of the peptide bond.
The design of heterogeneous catalysts for highly efficient catalysis for cyanosilylation reactions and Knoevenagel condensations is greatly significant, due to the important application of their products in industry. These compounds were characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, TG analysis and X-ray diffraction single crystal and powder etc. This kind of extended structure containing isopolyvanadate and heteropolyvanadate has never been reported hitherto.
Furthermore, these catalysts exhibit a truly heterogeneous nature and good recyclability. Single-crystal materials have played a unique role in the development of high-performance cathode materials for Li batteries due to their favorable chemomechanical stability.
The molten salt synthesis method has become one of the most prominent techniques used to synthesize single-crystal layered and spinel materials. The resulting materials are thoroughly characterized by a suite of analytical techniques, including synchrotron X-ray core-level spectroscopy, which are sensitive to the material properties on multiple length scales.
The multidimensional characterization allows us to build a materials library according to the molten salt phase diagram as well as to establish the relationship among synthesis, material properties, and battery performance. In this study, we synthesized heterometallic CoxNi1—xDI coordination frameworks for electrochemical energy storage applications and investigated their electrochemical properties by experimental and theoretical techniques.
Density functional theory calculations indicate that the energy levels of the antibonding orbitals around the metals and interlayer spaces are important factors in tailoring the electrochemical properties of CoxNi1—xDI. Crystal phase structure of bimetallic alloy is an important factor determining the electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of energy molecules. In this paper, PdCu bimetallic NPs with similar element composition and different crystal phase structural features have been synthesized hydrothermally by adjusting the content of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt EDTA-2Na.
The catalytic activity of ethanol electrooxidation is increased from 3. The surface composition and structural stability of homogeneous PdCu NPs were much less damaged during electrochemical measurements. Based on the experimental data, the formation mechanism of multiphase and homogeneous PdCu NPs and their structure—property relationship have been discussed.
Type 1 copper T1Cu proteins play important roles in electron transfer in biology, largely due to the unique structure of the T1Cu center, which is reflected by its spectroscopic properties. However, this correlation does not have a clear physical meaning, nor does it hold for many proteins with a perturbed T1Cu center. These findings and analyses provide a new framework for a deeper understanding of the spectroscopic and electronic properties of T1Cu proteins, which may allow better design and applications of this important class of proteins for redox and electron transfer functions.
The structures and bonding of the novel heterometallic cluster anions 1 and 2 were discussed. The reaction mechanism has been investigated using test substrates, kinetic, adsorption, isotopic 18O labeling, and spectroscopic tools. Kinetic modeling on methyl phenyl sulfoxide oxidation coupled with adsorption studies supports a mechanism that involves the interaction of H2O2 with Zr sites with the formation of a nucleophilic oxidizing species and release of water followed by oxygen atom transfer from the nucleophilic oxidant to sulfoxide that competes with water for Zr sites.
The nucleophilic peroxo species coexists with an electrophilic one, ZrOOH, capable of oxygen atom transfer to nucleophilic sulfides. The predominance of nucleophilic activation of H2O2 over electrophilic one is, most likely, ensured by the presence of weak basic sites in Zr-MOFs identified by FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed CDCl3 and quantified by adsorption of isobutyric acid. The electrochemical behavior of 1—6 was investigated in detail. Compounds 1—6 were tested in the oxidation of styrene and C—C coupling Henry and Knoevenagel condensations.
It owns the highest nuclearity in the family of organophosphonate-based polyoxometalates reported so far. Furthermore, for the first time in the field, we illustrated that polyoxomolybdate could work as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the Knoevenagel condensation reaction with high TOF h—1 and good recyclability.
Their luminescent properties have been studied in detail. Interestingly an insensitivity to water coordination as well as a very strong effect of optical dilution is observed. Therefore, molecular alloys with very high lanthanum concentration have been prepared. Some of them present highly tunable and very intense luminescence.
For example, to the best of our knowledge, [Sm0. They were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The electrocatalytical activity of the PtSn thin films was investigated in the methanol oxidation reaction.
This synthesis method is much more facile and safe procedure compared with general synthesis methods for oxyfluorides which includes hydrothermal reaction under a presence of HF or solid-state reaction at high temperatures in vacuum sealed tube or under high pressure. The morphology in the case of acetonitrile as a solvent was rodlike with a micrometer-scale size, while that in the case of ethanol was polyhedral with a size of several hundred nanometers.
Also, the difference of solvents for the solvothermal reaction affected the obtained particle sizes. The effect of the solvents on the morphologies of the obtained oxyfluorides probably resulted from the difference of the solubility of NaF and the subsequent dissolution ratio of MoO3 or WO3 in the used solvents. Four new layered flexible metal—organic frameworks MOFs containing a diacylhydrazone moiety, namely, guest-filled [Zn2 iso 2 tdih 2]n 1 , [Zn2 NH2iso 2 tdih 2]n 2 , [Cd2 iso 2 tdih 2]n 3 and [Cd2 NH2iso 2 tdih 2]n 4 were synthesized using terephthalaldehyde di-isonicotinoylhydrazone tdih as a linear ditopic linker as well as isophtalate iso or 5-aminoisophthalate NH2iso as angular colinkers.
In contrast to the frameworks based on isophtalates which do not show any significant gas uptakes, introduction of amino-substituted linker enables CO2 adsorption. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy reveal significant structural differences in interlayer hydrogen bonding upon activation of materials at higher temperatures. The work emphasizes the role of hydrogen bonds in crystal engineering of layered materials and the importance of activation conditions in such systems. Understanding the effect of charge transfer on the physical properties of metal—organic frameworks MOFs is essential for designing multifunctional MOF materials.
Complexes 1 and 3 are two-dimensional 2D coordination polymers, and 2 features an unusual three-dimensional 3D MOF. Further analysis reveals that the CT interactions within the MOF are not beneficial for the supercapacitance which is verified by the highest supercapacitance performance of 3. This work is the first study of the structures and CT effects on the supercapacitance performance.
Structural transformation in hybrid halides is an attractive way to modulate and improve their optical properties. In addition, the tunable electronic structure and optical anisotropy in this family are also presented.
This work provides a typical example for exploring new asymmetric and symmetric organic—inorganic hybrid halides as appliable photoelectric functional materials. Complementary information provided by these methods allowed precise determination of the magnetic interaction parameters, thereby removing the ambiguity inherit to single-method studies.
We systematically investigate the extent to which information about the magnetic interaction parameters can be deduced from reduced data sets. The detailed study revealed significant different magnetic properties in solid state and solution. To further exploit the information content of the solution NMR experimental results, we introduce the new concept of reduced paramagnetic shift. It allows for the determination of the magnetic axes and, subsequently, full NMR signal assignment.
It is shown that even in complicated cases, in which common NMR analytics integral intensities, relaxation factors, etc. Previous published entropies of solid lanthanide trichloride hydrates are reviewed and revised by taking account of the Kramers degeneracy of ground states with half-integral values of J.
The revised values necessitate corrections to the standard entropies of the aqueous tripositive lanthanide ions which display an irregular variation with both atomic number and ionic radius. These irregularities can be smoothed out by taking account of contributions from the electronic or magnetic entropy, from structural changes in the coordination that have been revealed by EXAFS and XANES measurements and X-ray crystallography, and from an increasing intrusion of eight coordination across the series.
When these contributions are removed, the entropies of the aqueous ions refer to a hypothetical nine-coordinate state in trigonal triprismatic coordination. Within experimental error, they then vary uniformly across the lanthanide series and there is a good linear correlation with the reciprocal of the metal—oxygen distance in the nine-coordinate aqua complexes. The bridging ligands L include azide 1 , methoxide 2 , and oxalate 3 anions. The magnetic properties and high-field HF EPR spectra of 1—3 were studied in detail and revealed varying weak antiferromagnetic coupling and modest zero-field splitting ZFS of the local quartet spin sites.
Our HF EPR studies provide insight into the dimer ZFS, including determination of the corresponding parameters by giant spin approach for methoxido-bridged complex 2. Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of 1—3 were studied using IR, UV—vis, and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry methods.
Theoretical exchange coupling constants were obtained using broken-symmetry BS density functional theory DFT. We found that the CP DFT calculations which used the B3LYP functional and models derived experimental structures performed best in reproducing both the magnitude and the sign of the experimental D values. The latter conclusion is further corroborated by the observation that the free ligand can be readily oxidized to yield a NO-based radical. The boron oxide clusters formed 2D planes, and these planes formed a 3D structure through co-oxygen links of metal complexes.
Herein, a novel strategy has been developed, i. Moreover, the effect of temperature on fluorescence of derived carbon materials was studied. By controlling the calcining temperature, carbon dots with obvious free radicals can be found via ESR technique. Carbon dots in the ethanol phase exhibited variable photoluminescence. Furthermore, it derived semi-decomposition carbon materials via thermal etching based on compounds 1 and 2.
In an hydrogen cell reactor, carbon material Zn-based catalyst catalyzes CO2 reduction to CO with a selectivity that reaches The Cf—O lengths within the crystal structure are compared to its gadolinium Gd-1 and holmium Ho-1 analogs as well. These data show that the average Cf—O bond distance is slightly longer than the average Gd—O bond, consistent with trends in effective ionic radii. UV—vis-NIR absorption spectra as a function of pressure were collected using diamond-anvil techniques for both Cf-1 and Ho In the former case, the shift is nearly linear with applied pressure and averages 6.
These compounds belong to a narrow region between 70 and Er17Pd7 2 is overlapping with the cubic F-centered Er2. Electronic structure calculations confirm that heteroatomic R—T bonding strongly dominates in all structures; T—T bonding interactions are individually strong but do not play a significant role in the total bonding. The piperazine-based dithiocarbamate linker ensures that rotation of the gadolinium chelates is restricted, leading to enhanced relaxivity r1 values, which increase with the overall mass and number of gadolinium units.
Using a 1. The versatility of dithiocarbamate coordination chemistry thus provides access to a wide range of d—f hybrids with potential for use as high-performance MRI contrast agents. The physicochemical properties, i. In this work, the transfer of the flexible and easily tunable hierarchical structure of nickel organochalcogenides to different binary Ni-based nanomaterials via selective coupling of organic units was developed.
We suggested the use of substituted aryl groups in organosulfur ligands SAr as traceless structure-inducing units to prepare nanostructured materials. At the first step, it was shown that the slight variation of the type of SAr units and synthetic procedures allowed us to obtain nickel thiolates [Ni SAr 2]n with diverse morphologies after a self-assembly process in solution.
This feature opened the way for the synthesis of different nanomaterials from a single type of precursor using the phenomenon of direct transfer of morphology. This study revealed that various nickel thiolates undergo selective C—S coupling under high-temperature conditions with the formation of highly demanding nanostructured NiS particles and corresponding diaryl sulfides.
The in situ oxidation of the formed nickel sulfide in the case of reaction in an air atmosphere provided another type of valuable nanomaterial, nickel oxide. The high selectivity of the transformation allowed the preservation of the initial organochalcogenide morphologies in the resulting products.
Metal—ligand cooperativity MLC relies on chemically reactive ligands to assist metals with small-molecule binding and activation, and it has facilitated unprecedented examples of catalysis with metal complexes. Despite growing interest in combining ligand-centered chemical and redox reactions for chemical transformations, there are few studies demonstrating how chemically engaging redox active ligands in MLC affects their electrochemical properties when bound to metals.
Here we report stepwise changes in the redox activity of model Ru complexes as zero, one, and two BH3 molecules undergo MLC binding with a triaryl noninnocent N2S2 ligand derived from o-phenylenediamine L1. A similar series of Ru complexes with a diaryl N2S2 ligand with ethylene substituted in place of phenylene L2 is also described to evaluate the influence of the o-phenylenediamine subunit on redox activity and MLC.
Cyclic voltammetry CV studies and density functional theory DFT calculations show that MLC attenuates ligand-centered redox activity in both series of complexes, but electron transfer is still achieved when only one of the two redox-active sites on the ligands is chemically engaged.
The results demonstrate how incorporating more than one multifunctional reactive site could be an effective strategy for maintaining redox noninnocence in ligands that are also chemically reactive and competent for MLC. Comparative studies of the synthesis of lithium guanidinates via nucleophilic addition of lithium amides to carbodiimides were performed.
Four combinations of small or sterically crowded carbodiimide and sterically crowded lithium amide or lithium amide containing an adjacent amino donor group give ten different types of complexes. The rest of the complexes are tetranuclear with different structural patterns.
In the central parts of molecules, toward which the nitrogen atoms of the guanidinates are oriented, lithium atoms are usually pseudotetrahedral, but trigonal in peripheral parts. Complexes 4 and 5 deoligomerize in solution upon the formation of fluxional monomeric dilithium species. Conversely, 11 is a dimer in solution due to the strong donation of an amino group.
This process is a redox reaction in which the bipyridine is reduced and becomes a dianionic substituent bound to boron through its two nitrogen atoms. Various transition metal—borylene complexes and diboranes, as a well as a diborene, take part in this reaction.
We report the synthesis, photophysical characterization, and biological evaluation of four DNA-binding ruthenium II polypyridyl 4-nitro- and 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide conjugates. A meta arrangement around the ring connecting the 1,8-naphthalimide to a bipyridine ligand creates a cleft, the result of which renders the shape of the complex complementary to that of DNA. We have demonstrated that each complex exhibits water solubility and a distinctive set of photophysical properties that has allowed the nature of their interaction with DNA to be probed by various ground- and excited-state titrations.
Furthermore, by varying the ancillary ligands, we also demonstrate their ability to act as DNA photocleavers, where all compounds have been found to cleave supercoiled DNA with high efficiency. Detailed cellular uptake experiments revealed that the conjugates accumulate in the cytoplasm and nucleus of HeLa cells, showing characteristic red metal-to-ligand charge-transfer emission, and also exhibit photoactivated cytotoxicity within the cells upon irradiation at nm.
A comparison between the meta and para arrangements of the 1,8-naphthalimide moiety relative to the Ru II center suggests increased DNA binding in the case of the meta arrangement; however, bipyridine—4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide conjugates appear to show superior phototoxicity in comparison to their 4-nitro derivatives. The photophysical behavior of these compounds in liquid solution, solid—solid Zeonex solution and powder samples at room temperature and 77 K have been investigated and supported by DFT calculation.
Identification of vibronic coupling modes, done by group theory calculations and the technique of projection operators, shows that the manifestation of these modes is conditioned by crystal packing. Reactions are performed in H2O, under aerobic conditions, with low catalyst loadings and tolerate the use of iodoalkynes as substrates. With a half-life of 7. In this work, the following sulfur-containing derivatives of tetraazacyclododecane cyclen have been considered as potential chelators for silver 1,4,7,tetrakis 2- methylsulfanyl ethyl -1,4,7,tetraazacyclododecane DO4S , 2S,5S,8S,11S -2,5,8,tetramethyl-1,4,7,tetrakis 2- methylsulfanyl ethyl -1,4,7,tetraazacyclododecane DO4S4Me , 1,4,7-tris 2- methylsulfanyl ethyl -1,4,7,tetraazacyclododecane DO3S , 1,4,7-tris 2- methylsulfanyl ethyl acetamido-1,4,7,tetraazacyclododecane DO3SAm , and 1,7-bis 2- methylsulfanyl ethyl -4,10,diacetic acid-1,4,7,tetraazacyclododecane DO2A2S.
The targeted isomers formed even when the precursors did not have the correct amount of each element to make a unit cell from each repeating sequence of elemental layers deposited. This suggests that the exact composition of the precursors is less important than the nanoarchitecture in directing the formation of the compounds. The as-deposited diffraction data show that the isomers begin to form during the deposition, and Ti2Se, in addition to PbSe and TiSe2, are present in the specular diffraction patterns.
The structural data suggest that Ti2Se forms as Se is deposited on the initial Ti layers and remains throughout isomer self-assembly. During growth, the isomers deplete the local supply of Ti and Pb, creating diffusion gradients that drive additional cations toward the growth front, which leaves surface impurity layers of TiSe2 and TiO2 after the supply of Pb is exhausted.
The deposited stacking sequences direct formation of the targeted isomers, but fewer repeating units form than intended due to the lack of material per layer in the precursor and formation of impurity layers. All isomers have negative Hall and Seebeck coefficients, indicating that electrons are the majority carrier. The carrier concentration and conductivity of the isomers increase with the number of interfaces in the unit cell, resulting from charge donation between adjacent layers.
The opposite variation of the carrier concentration and mobility with temperature result in minima in the resistivity between 50 and K. The very weak temperature dependence of the carrier concentration likely results from changes in the amount of charge transfer between the layers with temperature. N,N-Substituted ditetrazolylalkanes are widely used molecules in the field of coordination chemistry and are known with different alkyl chain lengths. The missing fragment within this row is presented by the elementary methylene-bridged ditetrazoles.
The three different isomers di tetrazolyl methane 1,1-dtm, 1 , tetrazolyl tetrazolyl methane 1,2-dtm, 2 , and di tetrazolyl methane 2,2-dtm, 3 were synthesized in a convenient one-step reaction. All compounds were extensively characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments, infrared spectroscopy IR , elemental analysis EA , and differential thermal analysis DTA.
Furthermore, the sensitivities were determined using standard techniques, and Hirshfeld surface calculations of the ligands were applied to explain their significant divergences to external stimuli. The ignition of all colored complexes was tested in laser experiments, and two copper II perchlorate compounds showed promising results in classic initiation capability tests using pentaerythritol tetranitrate PETN. Especially, 3 is constructed from multiple SBUs and displays an unusual 3,4,6 -connected topology.
Furthermore, especially 3 performs better than 1 and 2 in terms of uptake capacity as well as adsorption selectivity, which might be ascribed to the more proper pore space of 3. Due to their radical character, paramagnetic endohedral metallofullerenes EMFs are prone to dimerize. The dimerization exhibits high selectivity, i.
Thereby, we suggest two energetic criteria to determine whether a dimer structure can be formed under certain synthetic conditions: the monomer precursor should be sufficiently stable and the dimerization process should be sufficiently exergonic.
Furthermore, we show that commonly used reactivity descriptors, based on different physical arguments such as spin density, geometric characteristics, aromaticity, and bond orders, all have poor or no correlation with the dimerization regioselectivity of EMFs.
Conversely, we propose a simple hydride model able to quantitatively predict the relative dimer energies, which would serve as reliable and general guidance for the dimerization of EMFs and their derivatives. Several examples are provided that NHSi N-heterocyclic silylene ligands are much better metal—metal bridging ligands as compared to NHCs and that NHSi also tends to insert much more easily into metal—halide bonds of transition metal complexes.
Quasi-zero-dimensional antiferromagnets with weakly coupled clusters of multiple spins can provide an excellent platform for exploring exotic quantum states of matter. Overall, this study introduces a mild and convenient solution-only protocol for the deposition of thin films of Ge, a widely used semiconductor in materials research and industry. The atomic-scale effects of this anion site disorder within the host lattice—in particular how lattice disorder modulates the lithium substructure—are not well understood.
Here, we characterize the lithium substructure in Li6PS5X as a function of temperature and anion site disorder, using Rietveld refinements against temperature-dependent neutron diffraction data. Analysis of these high-resolution diffraction data reveals an additional lithium position previously unreported for Li6PS5X argyrodites, suggesting that the lithium conduction pathway in these materials differs from the most common model proposed in earlier studies.
This observed coupling of site disorder and lithium distribution provides a possible explanation for the enhanced lithium transport in anion-disordered lithium argyrodites and highlights the complex interplay between the anion configuration and lithium substructure in this family of superionic conductors. For endohedral metallofullerenes EMFs , it has been well established that the cage shape and size should match those of the endohedral cluster.
As a result, sufficient cluster—cage interaction can be achieved, which is essential for mutual stabilization.